The Manuscript

"In science, the credit goes to the man who convinces the world, not to the man to whom the idea first occurs."

(Sir William Osler)

I: Define the research problems. Motivation of your research

M: What did you do to find resolve the problems                        hourglass model! 

R: What did you find

D: What your findings mean


1. It is the first thing that readers see when they find your papers. Need to see the author guidelines.

2. It should be catchy and clear, enabling readers to decide whether it's relevant for them.

3. It is the main advertisement for your article.

Note: 1. Phrases such as "a study of", "observation on", "investigations into" should be avoided as they do not contain useful information. 2. Abstracting and indexing services depend on titles. 

Tips for effective titles:

1. Address the main issue of the article

2. Start with the subject matter of your article

3. Be as short as possible

4. Be accurate, unambiguous, specific and complete 

5. Make interesting so that the readers are attracted towards reading further


Summary of your paper

First section of the paper. Readers get first impression of your paper reading your abstract.

Length: Journal specific

It is a micro IMRAD+conclusion 

You may write the abstract after you finish the body of your paper. 

Together with title and abstract, your article should be able to fully represent your article. It is a good idea to write the abstract at the end, so it reflects the content accurately. 


The number of keywords that you need to mention depends on journals. However, the keywords are used for abstracting and indexing: choosing the right keyword may increase the visibility of your research (authors/readers may find easily). 


1. It should provide the context and background and NOT the history lesson.

2. State the issue being investigated, it's contextual background, and the reasons for conducting your research.

3. State the queries on which you are looking into and state findings of others that you are furthering. 

3. Motivate and divert the readers into methods at the end.


1. Use past tense and avoid first person (check author guidelines of the journal)

2. Explain your methods in detail so that the readers may replicate your research in other area/country.

3. Explain how did you study the issue in a logical way. You may need to write your sampling strategy. 

5. Introduce the machines, equipments and chemicals that you have used. Do not forget to clarify their sources. 

6. Methods new? expain in detail, otherwise cite the original work.

7. State the statistical test that you want to use to analyze you data. The conclusion derived with out any test is not trustable, hence explain the scope of the test and it's strength.

Results and Discussion

1. Link this section back to your introduction, refering to research questions. 

Present your findings explaining logically in a text. You need to show: a. how your results contribute to the body of scientific knowledge. b. explain in what way are your results consistent or contrary to the past similar research.

2. Base your text on the tables, graphs and figures. Emphasize the significant findings (if any). 

3. Any limitations

4. Suggestions for future researchers


1. Must be supportable and not extended beyond your results.

2. Suggest pratical applications for your results

3. Do not divert readers to a new vocabulary

4. Write on the basis of fact NOT imagination


1. Vote of thanks to those who helped you in conducting your research.

2. Disclose financial matters (if any)


New research builds on previously published research work, which should be acknowledged. For format of referencing, you may see the author guidelines of the journal you are going to submit to.

Supplementary material

See the journal author guidelines if it allows

1. Help shorten and simplify the paper

2. Methods that may be of interest to minority of readers (long list of chemicals....)

3. It is not a dust bin of data, be aware!


Dislike 0